A Review of Fine Tune Your English Chapter 7: How Clauses are Conjoined

Chapter 7
How Clauses are Conjoined.
     As we have discussed the various types of clauses earlier, let us  deal with how the different types of clauses are connected to each other.  Normally a  Clause is fastened to another one with the help of “conjunctions”, but there are other parts of speech like the “relative pronouns”” interrogative adverbs” and” relative adverbs” that do the same.
Now let us examine what a conjunction is!.

A conjunction is a part of speech that connects words or grammatical Constructions.
example:  The train was delayed and I was obliged to wait for two hours.
here the conjunction “and” is used to connect the two clauses, resulting in a complex sentence.

Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs.

Relative pronoun is used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. These include ‘who, whom ,which ,that’ etc.
A  relative pronoun is usually seen in a sentence normally at the beginning of an adjective clause . look at the example from your text .
People who grew impatient could be heard arguing
The relative pronoun “who”,  here performs two functions .
one, it connects or conjoins  the clauses“people grew impatient . They could be heard arguing.” The clauses are  connected using the relative pronoun “who” resulting in the construction:
“ people who grew impatient could be heard arguing”.
Secondly,  it also refers to the antecedent.  In  the given example the antecedent is “people”.

Relative Adverb .
A relative adverb introduces a group of words or a clause that tells more about a noun .These include “where, when ,why etc”.
example:  This is the spot where we met.
Here “where” is a relative adverb that connect the two clauses.


conjunctions are divided into :(1)coordinators or coordinating conjunctions and
(2)subordinators of subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions.
Coordinators connect words ,Phrases and clauses. These include “and ,for ,but ,yet ,so etc.  
In clause analysis ,we have already learnt about dependent and independent clauses. some sentences may have an independent and dependent clauses. In complex sentences the lesser important ideas are subordinated with the help of a subordinating conjunction. These include :”after, although ,even though, Whenever, Wherever ,so that, once, unless etc.

coordinating conjunctions.
There are four kinds of coordinating conjunctions .
(1)Cumulative conjunctions or Copulative.
They merely add or connect a statement to another.   They include:” also ,both, and, not only, but also” etc.
example: John as well as his brother is absent today .
Ramu and Raju are best friends.
The dog got up and walked away slowly.

(2)Alternative conjunctions /disjunctive conjunctions.
They express a choice or  alternative and they are called alternative Constructions. They include :”either... or ,neither... nor ,otherwise, or, else” etc.
example:  you can either accept the job or look for another one .
neither a borrower nor a lender be

(3)Adversative conjunctions .
These conjunctions express contrast between two statements . They include:” but ,still ,yet, whereas, while, nevertheless” etc.
They are poor but they are happy.
John is handsome whereas his brother is not.
Democracy has many flaws ,nevertheless, it is preferable to all other political systems.

(4)Illative conjunctions.
coordinating conjunctions by which a fact or statement is inferred from another. These include : therefore ,so, for etc.
Example:  He must be asleep for there is no light in his room.
she has been striving hard so she will pass the test

Subordinating conjunctions
It shows :
(1)time( when,as ,as soon as ,since, before) (2)purpose (in order that ,so that)
(3)condition (if, incase ,unless)
(4) result (so that)
(5) comparison( than, no less than, as... as) (6)manner( so far as, according as, as if)
(7)reason( because, since, as)
(8) concession ( though, although ,even if ,notwithstanding)

How are noun clauses joined?
Normally noun clauses can be joined by using: (1)conjunction
ex: King Lear tells his daughter that nothing comes from nothing.
(2)Interrogative adverb.
example :where he has been all these years nobody knows.

(3)Relative adverb
example: this is the house where Jack was born.
(4)Relative pronoun
ex: what affects the body affects the mind also.
(5)Interrogative pronoun.
ex:  we don't know who instigated this behaviour

How are adjective clauses conjoined?
As we have seen in the chapter 6 relative clauses are joined to other clauses by a relative pronoun or a relative adverb .
example : This is the house that Jack built .
This is the place where everything goes wrong.

How are adverbial clauses joined?
They are introduced using conjunctions Adverbial clause of Time are joined with conjunctions like since, as ,when,so long as, as soon as ,before, after etc.
example :when everybody else was playing Bob sat in his room reading a book.

Adverb clause of place are joined with conjunctions like where ,where ever, whence etc. example :where the bee sucks there suck I. where there is a will,there is a way.

Adverb clause of Purpose.
They are connected with conjunctions like “that, in order that, incase ,etc.
example: He resigned his job so that he could do load more time to his son's education.

Adverb clause of Reason.
They  are connected with conjunctions like because, since, as, etc.
example:  as he was dishonest  I sacked him.

Adverb clause of Result .
They are connected with a conjunctions so... that.
Adverb clauses of comparison.
They begin with “than, as, as if” etc.
example :No other mountain peak is as tall as Mount Everest

Adverbial clauses of concession.
They are introduced with “although, though, even if, etc.
example : Though he was ill he attended the meeting.

Joseph, Mathew. Fine Tune Your English. Orient Blackswan pvt. Ltd. 2010. print.


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