A Review of Fine Tune Your English Chapter 2 Phrases- simplified notes

Fine Tune Your English
Chapter 2 - Phrases;  what are they?
What is a phrase? 
> A phrase is a group of words that is meaningful but lacking a finite verb,  though there may be verbal elements like the participles . 
> It is not complete like a sentence . 
> It does not have a Subject and predicate of its own.
> It can function like a noun or an adjective or  like an adverb.

Characteristic Features of Phrases
> Phrases are group of words that convey some sense
> Most phrases are non-finite;It does not have a finite verb;  but there may be verbal elements like the participles
> some are totally verb- less; such phrases are contractions of participial phrases
> Ex. When Young, Blunt, the donkey was a champion.
> phrases are more compact than clauses.
> If you use in the place of a clause, it will become more compact and due to this many good writers prefer Phrasal Constructions.
> Ex. When he woke up , he found his horse gone 
> He woke up to find his horse gone 
> It is not complete like a sentence, with a subject or Predicate of its own.
> But there is a kind of  phrase with a subject and a  partial predicate of its own and function like a clause, but not a clause proper. It is called Absolute phrase.
> Ex. The sun climbing to the zenith, the day grew rather hot.
> Normally phrases are introduced by -ed participles, -ing participles, past participle,etc; But in certain cases a preposition, an adjective, an interrogative pronoun, an adverb or a noun can introduce a phrase.
> Ex: 1) Scrawled on the placard near him were the words," I am blind give me something".( Introduced by ed participle, scrawled)
> Ex2) Sitting in the shade of a tree and with a hat by his feet, a blind boy was begging for alms.( Sitting; ing participle).
> Ex 3) Overcome by curiosity, he asked a passer-by to read the new words on the placard.( Past tense participle, Overcome)
> Ex 4) After rubbing off the words on the placard, he wrote something new there.( Introduced by the preposition 'after'.)

Disadvantage of  using  Non -Finite Phrases
> Non finite phrases  have some deficiencies;  the use of a phrase in the place of a clause can sometimes lead to Ambiguity.

> Ex. I met you leaving the room.
It is not clear who was leaving the room.

Different types of phrases
1 Noun phrase/ Nominal Phrase.

A Noun Phrase is a word or group of words containing a noun or indefinite pronoun as  the head word or subject of a sentence and as the object of a sentence. Or it performs the grammatical function of a noun.
Ex.  I am surprised at fools flourishing like that
        A mother selling her own child is           unbelievable.
I am busy writing a novel.
Overcome by curiosity, he asked a passer-by to read the new words on the placard

2. Adverb phrase

An adverb phrase is simply two or more words that act as an adverb. 
It can modify a verb, adverb or adjective and can tell why how where when an action occurred
. ex. Meet me at the mall
      They must return before dusk.
      Whatever your problem, it has a solution.
       While praying to God, do not mention your           personal needs.
       The weather having improved, we         resumed   the game.

3 . Adjective phrase
    It is a group of words that describe a noun or pronoun in a sentence ; so in most cases they are tied to nouns. 

The adjective in an adjective phrase can appear at the beginning, end or middle of a phrase.  

The adjective phrase can be placed before or after the noun or pronoun in a sentence.

ex.  The ride was too terrible
      Everyone was extremely sad.
      I want you to grow strong in limb and strong in mind.
Happy and Cheerful, the boy started to sing a song.

Expected questions.
1. what is a phrase?
2. what is a noun phrase?
3.what is an adverb phrase?.

1. Joseph, Mathew. Fine tune your English. Orient Black Swan pvt.ltd, 2010. print.



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